Unlike in Germany and Japan, no war crimes tribunals were held against Italian military and political leaders, though the Italian resistance summarily executed some of them such as Mussolini at the end of the war; the Togliatti amnesty , taking its name from the Communist Party secretary at the time, pardoned all wartime common and political crimes in Austria called Ostmark by the Germans was separated from Germany and divided into four zones of occupation.
After the war, the Allies rescinded Japanese pre-war annexations such as Manchuria , and Korea became independent. The Philippines and Guam were returned to the United States. The Dutch East Indies was to be handed back to the Dutch but was resisted leading to the Indonesian war for independence. Roosevelt had secretly traded the Japanese Kurils and south Sakhalin to the Soviet Union in return for Soviet entry in the war with Japan.
Hundreds of thousands of Japanese were forced to relocate to the Japanese main islands.
Okinawa became a main US staging point. The US covered large areas of it with military bases and continued to occupy it until , years after the end of the occupation of the main islands.
The Transformative Impact of World War II — EGO
The bases still remain. The Allies collected reparations from Japan. To further remove Japan as a potential future military threat, the Far Eastern Commission decided to de-industrialise Japan, with the goal of reducing Japanese standard of living to what prevailed between and In early , the Licensed Agencies for Relief in Asia were formed and permitted to supply Japanese with food and clothes. In April the Johnston Committee Report recommended that the economy of Japan should be reconstructed due to the high cost to US taxpayers of continuous emergency aid.
Japan provided no special assistance to these people until In the Winter War of —, the Soviet Union invaded neutral Finland and annexed some of its territory. From until , Finland aligned itself with Nazi Germany in a failed effort to regain lost territories from the Soviets. Finland retained its independence following the war but remained subject to Soviet-imposed constraints in its domestic affairs. In June , the Soviet governments of the Baltic states carried out mass deportations of "enemies of the people"; as a result, many treated the invading Nazis as liberators when they invaded only a week later.
The Atlantic Charter promised self-determination to people deprived of it during the war. With the return of Soviet troops at the end of the war, the Forest Brothers mounted a guerrilla war. This continued until the mids. An estimated one million military and civilian Filipinos were killed from all causes; of these , were listed as killed in seventy-two war crime events.
According to a United States analysis released years after the war, U. As a result of the new borders drawn by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory. Poland lost the Kresy region about half of its pre-War territory and received most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line , including the industrial regions of Silesia.
The German state of the Saar was temporarily a protectorate of France but later returned to German administration. As set forth at Potsdam, approximately 12 million people were expelled from Germany, including seven million from Germany proper, and three million from the Sudetenland. During the war, the United States government interned approximately , Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States in the wake of Imperial Japan 's attack on Pearl Harbor.
After the war, some internees chose to return to Japan, while most remained in North America. The Soviet Union expelled at least 2 million Poles from east of the new border approximating the Curzon Line. This estimate is uncertain as both the Polish Communist government and the Soviet government did not keep track of the number of expelled.
Compilation of Periodical Literature: Foreign Affairs Cluster
The number of Polish citizens inhabiting Polish borderlands Kresy region was about 13 million before World War II broke out according to official Polish statistics. Polish citizens killed in the war that originated from the Polish borderlands territory killed by both German Nazi regime and the Soviet regime or expelled to distant parts of Siberia were accounted as Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian casualties of war in official Soviet historiography.
This fact imposes additional difficulties in making the correct estimation of the number of Polish citizens forcibly transferred after the war. Additionally, the Soviet Union transferred more than two million people within their own borders; these included Germans, Finns, Crimean Tatars , and Chechens. As Soviet troops marched across the Balkans, they committed rapes and robberies in Romania , Hungary , Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Foreign reports of Soviet brutality were denounced [ by whom? Rapes also occurred under other occupation forces, though the majority were committed by Soviet troops.
This offensive attitude among our troops is not at all general, but the percentage is large enough to have given our Army a pretty black name, and we too are considered an army of rapists. German soldiers left many war children behind in nations such as France and Denmark, which were occupied for an extended period. After the war, the children and their mothers often suffered recriminations. In Norway, the "Tyskerunger" German-kids suffered greatly. During the Italian campaign, the Goumiers , French Moroccan colonial troops attached to the French Expeditionary Forces, have been accused of committing rape and murder against the Italian peasant communities, mostly targeting civilian women and girls, as well as a few men and boys.
According to Italian victims associations, a total of more than 7, civilians, including children, were raped by Goumiers. In the first few weeks of the American military occupation of Japan, rape and other violent crime was widespread in naval ports like Yokohama and Yokosuka but declined shortly afterward. There were 1, reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture. Historians Eiji Takemae and Robert Ricketts state that "When US paratroopers landed in Sapporo, an orgy of looting, sexual violence, and drunken brawling ensued. Gang rapes and other sex atrocities were not infrequent" and some of the rape victims committed suicide.
General Robert L. Eichelberger , the commander of the U. Eighth Army, recorded that in the one instance when the Japanese formed a self-help vigilante guard to protect women from off-duty GIs, the Eighth Army ordered armored vehicles in battle array into the streets and arrested the leaders, and the leaders received long prison terms.
Research Our Records
A former prostitute recalled that as soon as Australian troops arrived in Kure in early , they "dragged young women into their jeeps, took them to the mountain, and then raped them. I heard them screaming for help nearly every night'. Such behavior was commonplace, but news of criminal activity by Occupation forces was quickly suppressed. Rape committed by U. Soon after the U. At the time, there were only women, children and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war. Soon after landing, the marines "mopped up" the entire village, but found no signs of Japanese forces.
Taking advantage of the situation, they started "hunting for women" in broad daylight and those who were hiding in the village or nearby air raid shelters were dragged out one after another. According to Toshiyuki Tanaka, 76 cases of rape or rape-murder were reported during the first five years of the American occupation of Okinawa. However, he claims this is probably not the true figure, as most cases were unreported.
One of the largest changes post-war was the global shift in those nations of authority. European influence in the Americas, Africa, and Asia diminished significantly, and only some of them managed to hold onto their colonial outposts, such as; Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands. However, it did not hesitate to enforce its military strength; if there were protests from local governments asking for higher wages and better working conditions from US firms that have bases in Latin America, Washington would step in and destabilize the current government in order to establish one that was more compliant to its desires.
The increased industrialization in Latin America led to a need for a more educated workforce who knew how to operate the new machinery. This led to a previously unprecedented number of people attending schools for higher education when previously citizens rarely completed secondary school. Large numbers of women went on to pursue higher education for the first time, and this gave more opportunity for women in professions and employment in general outside of the home. Universities also grew, and this led to a more progressive and left-leaning institutional setting; a larger number of people going to higher education led to a larger amount of the population being aware of and willing to challenge inequalities in society and were preoccupied with social justice and improving the infrastructure and government bureaucracy so it would serve all instead of a select privileged few.
These progressions managed to bring to light that while the middle class population was increasing, prosperity was absent from poor areas, both urban and rural, and this led to subsistence living or crowding into makeshift settlements on the outskirts of cities and towns. Often, such as in the Rocinha favela near Rio de Janeiro's South Zone , these poor settlements were placed directly adjacent to more wealthy residences, which emphasizes even more clearly how disproportionate these two class groups were, and still are today.
The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate even before the war was over,  when Stalin , Roosevelt, and Churchill exchanged a heated correspondence over whether the Polish government-in-exile , backed by Roosevelt and Churchill, or the Provisional Government , backed by Stalin, should be recognised. Stalin won. A number of allied leaders felt that war between the United States and the Soviet Union was likely.
Stalin responded by charging that co-existence between communist countries and the West was impossible. Due to the rising tension in Europe and concerns over further Soviet expansion, American planners came up with a contingency plan code-named Operation Dropshot in It considered possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union and its allies in order to counter a Soviet takeover of Western Europe, the Near East and parts of Eastern Asia that they anticipated would begin around In response, the US would saturate the Soviet Union with atomic and high-explosive bombs, and then invade and occupy the country.
The approach entailed a major buildup of US nuclear forces and a corresponding reduction in America's non-nuclear ground and naval strength. In Greece , civil war broke out in between Anglo-American-supported royalist forces and communist-led forces , with the royalist forces emerging as the victors. On 12 March , to gain Congressional support for the aid, President Truman described the aid as promoting democracy in defence of the " free world ", a principle that became known as the Truman Doctrine.
The US sought to promote an economically strong and politically united Western Europe to counter the threat posed by the Soviet Union. This was done openly using tools such as the European Recovery Program , which encouraged European economic integration. The International Authority for the Ruhr , designed to keep German industry down and controlled, evolved into the European Coal and Steel Community , a founding pillar of the European Union.
The United States also worked covertly to promote European integration, for example using the American Committee on United Europe to funnel funds to European federalist movements. However, without the manpower and industrial output of West Germany no conventional defence of Western Europe had any hope of succeeding. The attempt was dashed when the French Parliament rejected it. In Asia, the surrender of Japanese forces was complicated by the split between East and West as well as by the movement toward national self-determination in European colonial territories.
As agreed at the Yalta Conference , the Soviet Union went to war against Japan three months after the defeat of Germany. The Soviet forces invaded Manchuria. This was the end of the Manchukuo puppet state and all Japanese settlers were forced to leave China. The Soviet Union dismantled the industrial base in Manchuria built up by the Japanese in the preceding years. Manchuria also became a base for the Communist Chinese forces because of the Soviet presence. After the war, the Kuomintang KMT party led by generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Chinese forces resumed their civil war , which had been temporarily suspended when they fought together against Japan.
The fight against the Japanese occupiers had strengthened popular support among the Chinese for the Communist guerrilla forces while it weakened the KMT, who depleted their strength fighting a conventional war. Full-scale war between the opposing forces broke out in June Despite U. The KMT forces retreated to the island of Taiwan in Hostilities had largely ceased in Intermittent military clashes occurred between the PRC and Taiwan from Taiwan unilaterally declared the civil war over in , but no formal peace treaty or truce exists and the PRC officially sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that rightfully belongs to it and has expressed its opposition to Taiwanese independence.
Even so, tensions between the two states has decreased over time for example with the Chen-Chiang summits From this point, the relations between them have improved over time although some tension and rivalry remain even with the end of the Cold War and the PRC's distancing from the Communist ideology. At the Yalta Conference , the Allies agreed that an undivided post-war Korea would be placed under four-power multinational trusteeship. After Japan's surrender, this agreement was modified to a joint Soviet-American occupation of Korea.
Korea, formerly under Japanese rule , and which had been partially occupied by the Red Army following the Soviet Union's entry into the war against Japan, was divided at the 38th parallel on the orders of the US War Department. John R. Hodge , enlisted many former Japanese administrative officials to serve in this government.
Simultaneously, the Soviets enabled a build-up of heavy armaments to pro-communist forces in the north. It culminated in the north invading the south, start of the Korean War two years later. Labour and civil unrest broke out in the British colony of Malaya in A state of emergency was declared by the colonial authorities in with the outbreak of acts of terrorism. In , communist leader Chin Peng reopened hostilities, culminating in a second emergency that lasted until The communist-controlled common front Viet Minh supported by the Allies was formed among the Vietnamese in the colony in to fight for the independence of Vietnam, against both the Japanese and prewar French powers.
After the Vietnamese Famine of support for the Viet Minh was bolstered as the front launched a rebellion, sacking rice warehouses and urging the Vietnamese to refuse to pay taxes. Because the French colonial authorities started to hold secret talks with the Free French, the Japanese interned them 9 March When Japan surrendered in August, this created a power vacuum, and the Viet Minh took power in the August Revolution , declaring the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
However, the Allies including the Soviet Union all agreed that the area belonged to the French. Nationalist Chinese forces moved in from the north and British from the south as the French were unable to do so immediately themselves and then handed power to the French, a process completed by March Attempts to integrate the Democratic Republic of Vietnam with French rule failed and the Viet Minh launched their rebellion against the French rule starting the First Indochina War that same year the Viet Minh organized common fronts to fight the French in Laos and Cambodia. The war ended in with French withdrawal and a partition of Vietnam that was intended to be temporary until elections could be held.
The Democratic Republic of Vietnam held the north while South Vietnam formed into a separate republic in control of Ngo Dinh Diem who was backed in his refusal to hold elections by the US. The communist party of the south eventually organized the common front NLF to fight to unite south and north under the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and thus began the Vietnam War , which ended with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam conquering the South in Japan invaded and occupied Indonesia during the war and replaced much of the Dutch colonial state.
Although the top positions were held by Japanese, the internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions. Following the Japanese surrender in August , nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence. A four and a half-year struggle followed as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony, using a significant portion of their Marshall Plan aid to this end. Although Dutch forces re-occupied most of Indonesia's territory, a guerrilla struggle ensued, and the majority of Indonesians, and ultimately international opinion, favoured Indonesian independence.
In December , the Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian sovereignty. British covert operations in the Baltic States, which began in against the Nazis, escalated after the war. Vietnam and the Middle East would later damage the reputation gained by the US during its successes in Europe. In later years, African countries used as proxies in the Cold War would often become "failed states" of their own.
When the divisions of postwar Europe began to emerge, the war crimes programmes and denazification policies of Britain and the United States were relaxed in favour of recruiting German scientists, especially nuclear and long-range rocket scientists. Western Allied occupation force officers in Germany were ordered to refuse to cooperate with the Soviets in sharing captured wartime secret weapons,  the recovery for which, specifically in regards to advanced German aviation technology and personnel, the British had sent the Fedden Mission into Germany to contact its aviation technology centers and key personnel, paralleled by the United States with its own Operation Lusty aviation technology personnel and knowledge recovery program.
The wartime activities of some Operation Paperclip scientists would later be investigated. Following his acquittal, he returned to the United States in and eventually became a US citizen. The Soviets began Operation Osoaviakhim in NKVD and Soviet army units effectively deported thousands of military-related technical specialists from the Soviet occupation zone of post-war Germany to the Soviet Union. As a general consequence of the war and in an effort to maintain international peace,  the Allies formed the United Nations UN , which officially came into existence on 24 October The LN was formally dissolved on 20 April but had in practice ceased to function in , being unable to stop the outbreak of World War II.
South-West Africa , an exception, was still governed under terms of the original mandate. As the successor body to the League, the UN still assumed a supervisory role over the territory. The Free City of Danzig , a semi-autonomous city state that was partly overseen by the League, became part of Poland. The UN adopted The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in , "as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. The US did not ratify the social and economic rights sections. The permanent members can veto any United Nations Security Council resolution , the only UN decisions that are binding according to international law.
- Simply SQL.
- Wooden on Leadership: How to Create a Winning Organization;
- Postwar Diplomacy and Reconstruction of Europe and Asia.
- The Ohio Job Bank, 11th Edition.
- Italy–United States relations - Wikipedia.
- THE UNITED-STATES AND ITALY, - THE POLITICS AND DIPLOMACY OF STABILIZATION - MILLER,JE?
- Cognitive Adaptation: A Pragmatist Perspective.
This was changed in when the PRC was given the permanent membership previously held by the Republic of China. Russia inherited the permanent membership of the Soviet Union in after the dissolution of that state. Japanese holdouts persisted on various islands in the Pacific Theatre until at least Although all hostilities are now resolved, a peace treaty has never been signed between Japan and Russia due to the Kuril Islands dispute. In Europe, West Germany , after having continued to decline economically during the first years of the Allied occupation, later experienced a remarkable recovery , and had by the end of the s doubled production from its pre-war levels.
The Soviet Union also experienced a rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era. By , economic restoration seemed fairly successful as production had resumed pre-war levels. At the end of the war, the United States produced roughly half of the world's industrial output. The US, of course, had been spared industrial and civilian devastation. Further, much of its pre-war industry had been converted to wartime usage. As a result, with its industrial and civilian base in much better shape than most of the world, the US embarked on an economic expansion unseen in human history.
Byrnes, Robert, ed. Decision-Making , Berlin, Clarke, R. Davison, W. Diefendorf, Jerry, et. Golden, James R. Roosevelt, George F. Kennan, and Dean Acheson , NY, Kertesz, Stephen, ed. Leigh-Phippard, Helen, Congress and U. Louis, Wm. Roger and Hedley Bull, eds. Manderson-Jones, R. Markovits, Andrei S. Merritt, Richard, Democracy Imposed: U. Rees, G. Watson, Will, et. Occupation, , Westport, Young, Johns W. Policy, , NY, Baldwin, Frank, ed. Borden, William S. Borg, Dorothy and Waldo Heinrichs, eds. Carter, K. Chang, Gordon H. Cohen, Warren, ed. Cumings, Bruce, ed.
Davies, John P. Relations with China since , NY, Friedman, Edward and Mark Selden, eds. Goodman, Grant, comp. Gregor, A. James, The China Connection: U. Policy and the People's Republic of China , Stanford, Guttman, Allen, ed. Harding, Harry and Yuan Ming, eds.
Heller, Francis, ed. Hirano, Kyoko, Mr. Hsiung, James, ed. Iriye, Akira, ed. Iriye, Akira and Warren Cohen, eds. James, D. Kahn, E. Kalicki, J. Kaufman, Victor, Confronting Communism: U. Foreign Policy , Philadelphia, Koo, Youngnok and Dae-Sook Suh, ed. Occupation of Japan , NY, Lauren, Paul Gordon, ed. Lee, Yur-Bok and Wayne Patterson, eds. Mayers, David, Cracking the Monolith: U. Nagai, Yonosuke and Akira Iriye, eds.
Rovere, Richard and Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. Service, John S. Soloman, Richard, ed. Stuart, Douglas and William Tow, eds. Sugita, Yoneyuki, and Marie Thornten. Okayama: University Education Press, Thompson, James C. Westad, Odd, ed. Anderegg, Michael, ed. Anderson, David L. Doctrines and Performance , NY, Policy , Athens, OH, Braestrop, Peter, ed. Burke, John P. Cable, Larry E. Political Culture , Boston, Duiker, William, U.
Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina , Stanford, Enthoven, Alain and K. Wayne Smith, How Much is Enough? The Defense Program, , NY, Gibbons, William, The U. Goldstein, Joseph, et. Hearden, Patrick, ed. Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri, Peace Now! Kahin, George McT. Involvement in the Vietnam War , NY, Komer, Robert, Bureaucracy at War: U. Performance in the Vietnam Conflict , Boulder, McMaster, H.
McNamara, Robert, et. Newman, John M. Rotter, Andrew J. Rowe, John C. Schlesinger, Arthur M. Shafer, D. Michael, ed. I: Revolution versus Containment, , NY, Thompson, W. Scott and Donaldson Frizzell, eds. Air Force and North Vietnam, , Washington, Tomes, Robert R. New York, Woods, Randall, J. The Vietnam Wars: , NY, Andrews, Gregg, Shoulder to Shoulder?
Allman, T. Atkins, G. Berle, Adolf A. Jacobs, NY, Relations with Cuba , Boulder, Brown, Cynthia, ed. Policy in Latin America , NY, Occupation of , Austin, TX, Chomsky, Noam, Turning the Tide: U. Coleman, Kenneth and George Herring, eds. Cotler, Julio and Richard R. Fagen, eds. Cottom, Martha, Images and Interventions: U.
Policies in Latin America , Pittsburgh, Curry, E. Diederich, Bernard, Somoza and the Legacy of U. Involvement in Central America , NY, Diskin, Martin, ed. Dominguez, Jorge and Rafael Hernandez, eds. Eisenhower, John S. Fagen, Richard and Olga Pellier, eds. Hall, Linda B. Hogan, J. Power , Boulder, Kryzanek, Michael, Leaders, Leadership, and U. Policy in Latin America , Boulder, Lael, Richard, Arrogant Diplomacy: U. Lowenthal, Abraham, ed. Martz, John and Lars Schoultz, eds. Mecham, J. Middlebrook, Kevin and Carlos Rico, eds. Molineu, Harold, U. Moran, Fernando, et. Policy Toward Nicaragua, , NY, Newfarmer, Richard, ed.
Policies for Latin America , Baltimore, S-Latin American Relations , trans. Harry Drost, London, O'Brien, Thomas F. Parkinson, F. Pastor, Robert, Whirlpool: U. Rippy, J. Policy toward Latin America , Cambridge, Spector, Robert, W. Portfolio Investment in Latin America, , Berkeley, Policy toward Latin America , NY, Human Rights Policy , NY, Weis, W. Whitaker, Arthur, ed. Williams, William A. Alteras, Isaac, Eisenhower and Israel: U. Citino, Nathan. Christopher, Warren, et.
Decision Making in , , and , Berkeley, Gasiorowski, Mark, U. Louis, William Roger and Roger Owen, eds. Lucas, W. Interests in the Middle East, , Berkeley, Foreign Oil Policy, , Baltimore, Came to Recognize Israel , Stanford, Ali, S.
Baker, Richard, ed. Barclay, Glen St. John and Joseph Siracusa, eds. Brown, W. Clough, Michael, Free at Last: U.
Нов български университет
Gould, Harold and Sumit Ganguly, eds. The Hope and the Reality: U. Grattan, C. Harper, Norman, ed. Hope, A. Guy, America and Swaraj: The U. Role in Indian Independence , Washington, D. Lefebvre, Jeffrey, Arms for the Horn: U. Security Policy in Ethiopia and Somalia, , Pittsburgh, Love, Janice, The U. Maga, Timothy, John F.