Manual Television

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I am very happy its sound hear like I am in a theater. S Certified Buyer Jul, Flipkart Customer Certified Buyer Today. Samsung 7-in-1 80cm 32 inc Then they often "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot.

They want very much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for. To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season usually Fall. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage.

The show hires a stable of writers , who usually work in parallel: the first writer works on the first episode, the second on the second episode, etc. Sometimes they develop story ideas individually, and pitch them to the show's creator, who folds them together into a script and rewrites them. If the show is picked up, the network orders a "run" of episodes—usually only six or 13 episodes at first, though a season typically consists of at least 22 episodes.

The method of "team writing" is employed on some longer dramatic series usually running up to a maximum of around 13 episodes. The idea for such a program may be generated "in-house" by one of the networks; it could originate from an independent production company sometimes a product of both. There are still a significant number of programs, however, usually sitcoms that are built around just one or two writers, and a small, close-knit production team.

These are "pitched" in the traditional way, but since the creator s handle all the writing requirements, there is a run of six or seven episodes per series once approval has been given. Many of the most popular British comedies have been made this way, including Monty Python's Flying Circus albeit with an exclusive team of six writer-performers , Fawlty Towers , Blackadder and The Office. The production company is often separate from the broadcaster.

The executive producer , often the show's creator, is in charge of running the show. They pick the crew and help cast the actors, approve and sometimes write series plots—some even write or direct major episodes—while various other producers help to ensure that the show runs smoothly. Very occasionally, the executive producer will cast themselves in the show. As with filmmaking or other electronic media production, producing of an individual episode can be divided into three parts: pre-production , principal photography , and post-production. Pre-production begins when a script is approved.

A director is chosen to plan the episode's final look. Pre-production tasks include storyboarding, construction of sets, props, and costumes, casting guest stars, budgeting, acquiring resources like lighting, special effects, stunts, etc. Once the show is planned, it must then be scheduled; scenes are often filmed out of sequence, guest actors or even regulars may only be available at certain times. Sometimes the principal photography of different episodes must be done at the same time, complicating the schedule a guest star might shoot scenes from two episodes on the same afternoon.

Complex scenes are translated from storyboard to animatics to further clarify the action. Scripts are adjusted to meet altering requirements. Some shows have a small stable of directors, but also usually rely on outside directors. Given the time constraints of broadcasting, a single show might have two or three episodes in pre-production, one or two episodes in principal photography, and a few more in various stages of post-production. The task of directing is complex enough that a single director can usually not work on more than one episode or show at a time, hence the need for multiple directors.

Principal photography is the actual filming of the episode. Director, actors and crew gather at a television studio or on location for filming or videoing a scene. A scene is further divided into shots, which should be planned during pre-production.


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Depending on scheduling, a scene may be shot in non-sequential order of the story. Conversations may be filmed twice from different camera angles , often using stand-ins, so one actor might perform all their lines in one set of shots, and then the other side of the conversation is filmed from the opposite perspective. To complete a production on time, a second unit may be filming a different scene on another set or location at the same time, using a different set of actors, an assistant director, and a second unit crew.

A director of photography supervises the lighting of each shot to ensure consistency. Live events are usually covered by Outside Broadcast crews using mobile television studios, known as scanners or OB trucks. Although varying greatly depending on the era and subject covered, these trucks were normally crewed by up to 15 skilled operators and production personnel. In the UK, for most of the 20th century, the BBC was the preeminent provider of outside broadcast coverage.

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BBC crews worked on almost every major event, including Royal weddings and funerals, major political and sporting events, and even drama programmes. Once principal photography is complete, producers coordinate tasks to begin the video editing. Visual and digital video effects are added to the film; this is often outsourced to companies specializing in these areas.

Often music is performed with the conductor using the film as a time reference other musical elements may be previously recorded. An editor cuts the various pieces of film together, adds the musical score and effects, determines scene transitions, and assembles the completed show. Most television networks throughout the world are 'commercial', dependent on selling advertising time or acquiring sponsors. Many scripted network television shows in the United States are financed through deficit financing: a studio finances the production cost of a show and a network pays a license fee to the studio for the right to air the show.

This license fee does not cover the show's production costs, leading to the deficit. Although the studio does not make its money back in the original airing of the show, it retains ownership of the show.

Digital television

This ownership retention allows the studio to make its money back and earn a profit through syndication and DVD and Blu-ray disc sales. This system places most of the financial risk on the studios, however a show that is a hit in the syndication and home video markets can more than make up for the misses.

Although the deficit financing system places minimal financial risk on the networks, they lose out on the future profits of big hits, since they are only licensing the shows.

Costs are recouped mainly by advertising revenues for broadcast networks and some cable channels, while other cable channels depend on subscription revenues. In general, advertisers, and consequently networks that depend on advertising revenues, are more interested in the number of viewers within the 18—49 age range than the total number of viewers. After production, the show is handed over to the television network , which sends it out to its affiliate stations , which broadcast it in the specified broadcast programming time slot. If the Nielsen ratings are good, the show is kept alive as long as possible.

If not, the show is usually canceled. The show's creators are then left to shop around remaining episodes, and the possibility of future episodes, to other networks. On rare occasions, a series that has not attracted particularly high ratings and has been canceled can be given a reprieve if home video viewership has been particularly strong. If the show is popular or lucrative, and a number of episodes usually episodes or more are made, it goes into broadcast syndication in the United States where rights to broadcast the program are then resold for cash or put into a barter exchange offered to an outlet for free in exchange for airing additional commercials elsewhere in the station's broadcast day.

The terminology used to define a set of episodes produced by a television series varies from country to country. In North American television, a series is a connected set of television program episodes that run under the same title, possibly spanning many seasons. Since the late s, this broadcast programming schedule typically includes between 20 and 26 episodes. Before then, a regular television season could average at least 30 episodes, and some TV series may have had as many as 39 episodes in a season.

Until the s, most but certainly not all new programs for the American broadcast networks debuted in the "fall season", which ran from September through March and nominally contained from 24 to 26 episodes. These episodes were rebroadcast during the spring or summer season, from April through August. Because of cable television and the Nielsen sweeps , the "fall" season now normally extends to May. Thus, a "full season" on a broadcast network now usually runs from September through May for at least 22 episodes. A full season is sometimes split into two separate units with a hiatus around the end of the calendar year, such as the first season of Jericho on CBS.

When this split occurs, the last half of the episodes sometimes are referred to with the letter B as in "The last nine episodes of The Sopranos will be part of what is being called either "Season 6, Part 2" or "Season 6B", [19] or in " Futurama is splitting its seasons similar to how South Park does, doing half a season at a time, so this is season 6B for them. Since at least the s, new broadcast television series are often ordered funded for just the first 10 to 13 episodes, to gauge audience interest.

If a series is popular, the network places a "back nine order" and the season is completed to the regular 20 to 26 episodes. An established series which is already popular, however, will typically receive an immediate full-season order at the outset of the season. A midseason replacement is a less-expensive short-run show of generally 10—13 episodes designed to take the place of an original series that failed to garner an audience and has not been picked up.

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A "series finale" is the last show of the series before the show is no longer produced. In the UK, it means the end of a season, what is known in the United States as a " season finale". A standard television season in United States television runs predominantly across the fall and winter, from September to May. Historically, the US networks filled their summer schedules primarily by airing reruns of their fall and winter shows, although they now typically air a more diverse mixture of reruns, burnoff runs of cancelled series, new limited or event series or reality shows, and other specials.

In Canada, the commercial networks air most US programming in tandem with the US television season, but their original Canadian shows follow a model closer to British than American television production. Due to the smaller production budgets available in Canada, a Canadian show's season normally runs to a maximum of 13 episodes rather than 20 or more, although an exceptionally popular series such as Corner Gas or Murdoch Mysteries might receive episode orders in later seasons. Canadian shows do not normally receive "back nine" extensions within the same season, however; even a popular series simply ends for the year when the original production order has finished airing, and an expanded order of more than 13 episodes is applied to the next season's renewal order rather than an extension of the current season.

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Only the public CBC Television normally schedules Canadian-produced programming throughout the year; the commercial networks typically now avoid scheduling Canadian productions to air in the fall, as such shows commonly get lost amid the publicity onslaught of the US fall season. Instead, Canadian-produced shows on the commercial networks typically air either in the winter as mid-season replacements for cancelled US shows, or in the summer. While network orders for or episode seasons are still pervasive in the television industry, several shows have deviated from this traditional trend.

Written to be close-ended and of shorter length than other shows, they are marketed with a variety of terms. In the United Kingdom and other countries, these sets of episodes are referred to as a "series". In Australia, the broadcasting may be different from North American usage; however, the terms series and season are both used and are the same. For example, Battlestar Galactica has an original series as well as a remake, both are considered a different series each with their own number of individual seasons.

For many years, popular night-time dramas in Australia would run for much of the year, and would only go into recess during the summer period December—February, as Australia is in the Southern Hemisphere , when ratings are not taken. Therefore, popular dramas would usually run from February through November each year.

Many drama series, such as McLeod's Daughters , have received in the majority of between 22 and 32 episodes per season. Typically, a soap opera such as Home and Away would begin a new season in late January and the season finale would air in late November, with — episodes per season. However, during the Olympics , Home and Away would often go on hiatus, which is referred to as an "Olympic cliffhanger".

Therefore, the number of episodes would decrease. British shows have tended toward shorter series in recent years. However, there are some series in the UK that have a larger number of episodes, for example Waterloo Road started with 8 to 12 episodes, but from series three onward it increased to twenty episodes, and series seven will contain 30 episodes. Recently, American non-cable networks have also begun to experiment with shorter series for some programs, particularly reality shows, such as Survivor.

However, they often air two series per year, resulting in roughly the same number of episodes per year as a drama.