Manual Paralanguage: A Linguistic and Interdisciplinary Approach to Interactive Speech and Sounds

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Project Gutenberg 0 editions. Google Books — Loading Local Book Search. Swap 2 want. However, the distinction linguistic vs. Even vocal language has some paralinguistic as well as linguistic properties that can be seen lip reading , McGurk effect , and even felt , e. Consequently, paralinguistic cues relating to expression have a moderate effect of semantic marking. That is, a message may be made more or less coherent by adjusting its expressive presentation.

For instance, upon hearing an utterance such as "I drink a glass of wine every night before I go to sleep" is coherent when made by a speaker identified as an adult, but registers a small semantic anomaly when made by a speaker identified as a child. Individuals with disorders along autism spectrum have a reduced sensitivity to this and similar effects.

Emotional tone of voice, itself paralinguistic information, has been shown to affect the resolution of lexical ambiguity. Some of the linguistic features of speech, in particular of its prosody , are paralinguistic or pre-linguistic in origin. A most fundamental and widespread phenomenon of this kind is described by John Ohala as the "frequency code". It has its origin in the fact that the acoustic frequencies in the voice of small vocalizers are high while they are low in the voice of large vocalizers. This gives rise to secondary meanings such as 'harmless', 'submissive', 'unassertive', which are naturally associated with smallness, while meanings such as 'dangerous', 'dominant', and 'assertive' are associated with largeness.

In most languages, the frequency code also serves the purpose of distinguishing questions from statements.

Paralanguage : a linguistic and interdisciplinary approach to interactive speech and sound

It is universally reflected in expressive variation, and it is reasonable to assume that it has phylogenetically given rise to the sexual dimorphism that lies behind the large difference in pitch between average female and male adults. In text-only communication such as email, chatrooms and instant messaging , paralinguistic elements can be displayed by emoticons , font and color choices, capitalization and the use of non-alphabetic or abstract characters. Nonetheless, paralanguage in written communication is limited in comparison with face-to-face conversation, sometimes leading to misunderstandings.

A gasp is a kind of paralinguistic respiration in the form of a sudden and sharp inhalation of air through the mouth.

Aspects of the speech signal

A gasp may indicate difficulty breathing and a panicked effort to draw air into the lungs. Gasps also occur from an emotion of surprise , shock or disgust. Like a sigh, a yawn , or a moan , a gasp is often an automatic and unintentional act.

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As a symptom of physiological problems, apneustic respirations a. A sigh is a kind of paralinguistic respiration in the form of a deep and especially audible, single exhalation of air out of the mouth or nose, that humans use to communicate emotion. It is voiced pharyngeal fricative , sometimes associated with a guttural glottal breath exuded in a low tone.

Paralanguage a linguistic and interdisciplinary approach to interactive…

It often arises from a negative emotion, such as dismay, dissatisfaction, boredom, or futility. Like a gasp, a yawn , or a moan , a sigh is often an automatic and unintentional act. Scientific studies show that babies sigh after 50 to breaths. This serves to improve the mechanical properties of lung tissue, and it also helps babies to develop a regular breathing rhythm.

Free Paralanguage: A Linguistic And Interdisciplinary Approach To Interactive Speech And Sounds

Behaviors equivalent to sighing have also been observed in animals such as dogs , monkeys , and horses. Sighing is also a reflex, governed by a few neurons. Clearing one's throat is a metamessaging nonverbal form of communication [14] used in announcing one's presence upon entering the room or approaching a group. It is done by individuals who perceive themselves to be of higher rank than the group they are approaching and utilize the throat-clear as a form of communicating this perception to others.

The throat-clear [16] is also used to convey nonverbalized [17] disapproval. And in chimpanzee social hierarchy , this utterance is a sign of rank, directed by alpha males and higher-ranking chimps to lower-ranking ones and signals a mild warning or a slight annoyance.


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As a form of metacommunication , the throat-clear is acceptable only to signal that a formal business meeting is about to start. It is not acceptable business etiquette to clear one's throat when approaching a group on an informal basis; the basis of one's authority has already been established and requires no further reiteration by this ancillary nonverbal communication. Mhm is between a literal language and movement, by making a noise "hmm" or "mhm", to make a pause for the conversation or as a chance to stop and think.

Observing the "mhm" act is especially used in narratives interview , by conducting biographical interview with survivor from some traumatic events such as Shoah, or sexual violence. In this kind of interview, it's better for the interviewers or counselors not to intervene too much when an interviewee is talking.

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Observing emotional differences and taking care of an interviewee's mental status is an important way to find slight changes during conversation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Component of meta-communication that may modify or nuance meaning, or convey emotion, such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation etc.