The great heroic myth of 20th century British history is that after the fall of France in June Britain stood alone. This does a great disservice to the millions of men and women from around the world who rallied to the British cause. As in As the army's second most senior officer, he was responsible for provi Roger Broad has worked as an international journalist for the Financial Times, editor for European Community magazine, and the UK press officer for the European Commission in the s.
Du kanske gillar. Permanent Record Edward Snowden Inbunden. For the Record David Cameron Inbunden. Inbunden Engelska, Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. MacDonald went on to appoint Britain's first woman cabinet minister; Margaret Bondfield , who was appointed Minister of Labour. MacDonald's second government was in a stronger parliamentary position than his first, and in Labour were able to pass legislation to raise unemployment pay, improve wages and conditions in the coal industry i.
The government, however, soon found itself engulfed in crisis: the Wall Street Crash of and eventual Great Depression occurred soon after the government came to power, and the slump in global trade hit Britain hard. By the end of unemployment had doubled to over two and a half million. The cabinet deadlocked over its response, with several influential members unwilling to support the budget cuts in particular a cut in the rate of unemployment benefit which were pressed by the civil service and opposition parties.
Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Snowden refused to consider deficit spending or tariffs as alternative solutions. When a final vote was taken, the Cabinet was split with a minority, including many political heavyweights such as Arthur Henderson and George Lansbury , threatening to resign rather than agree to the cuts. The unworkable split, on 24 August , made the government resign.
The financial crisis grew worse and decisive government action was needed as the leaders of both the Conservative and Liberal Parties met with King George V , and MacDonald, at first to discuss support for the spending cuts but later to discuss the shape of the next government. The king played the central role in demanding a National government be formed. On 24 August, MacDonald agreed to form a National Government composed of men from all parties with the specific aim of balancing the Budget and restoring confidence.
The new cabinet had four Labourites who formed a " National Labour " group who stood with MacDonald, plus four Conservatives led by Baldwin, Chamberlain and two Liberals. MacDonald's moves aroused great anger among a large majority of Labour Party activists who felt betrayed. Labour unions were strongly opposed and the Labour Party officially repudiated the new National government.
It expelled MacDonald and his supporters and made Henderson the leader of the main Labour party. Henderson led it into the general election on 27 October against the three-party National coalition. It was a disaster for Labour, which was reduced to a small minority of 52 seats. The Conservative dominated National Government, led by MacDonald won the largest landslide in British political history. In Labour campaigned on opposition to public spending cuts, but found it difficult to defend the record of the party's former government and the fact that most of the cuts had been agreed before it fell.
Historian Andrew Thorpe argues that Labour lost credibility by as unemployment soared, especially in coal, textiles, shipbuilding, and steel. The working class increasingly lost confidence in the ability of Labour to solve the most pressing problem. The 2. The Catholic Church had previously tolerated the Labour Party, and denied that it represented true socialism. However, the bishops by had grown increasingly alarmed at Labour's policies toward Communist Russia, toward birth control and especially toward funding Catholic schools. They warned its members.
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The Catholic shift against Labour and in favour of the National government played a major role in Labour's losses. Arthur Henderson , elected in to succeed MacDonald, lost his seat in the general election. The only former Labour cabinet member who had retained his seat, the pacifist George Lansbury , accordingly became party leader.
The party experienced another split in when the Independent Labour Party , which for some years had been increasingly at odds with the Labour leadership, opted to disaffiliate from the Labour Party and embarked on a long, drawn-out decline. Lansbury resigned as leader in after public disagreements over foreign policy. He was promptly replaced as leader by his deputy, Clement Attlee , who would lead the party for two decades. As the threat from Nazi Germany increased, in the late s the Labour Party gradually abandoned its pacifist stance and came to support re-armament, largely due to the efforts of Ernest Bevin and Hugh Dalton who by had also persuaded the party to oppose Neville Chamberlain 's policy of appeasement.
The party returned to government in as part of the wartime coalition. When Neville Chamberlain resigned in the spring of , incoming Prime Minister Winston Churchill decided to bring the other main parties into a coalition similar to that of the First World War. A number of other senior Labour figures also took up senior positions: the trade union leader Ernest Bevin , as Minister of Labour , directed Britain's wartime economy and allocation of manpower, the veteran Labour statesman Herbert Morrison became Home Secretary , Hugh Dalton was Minister of Economic Warfare and later President of the Board of Trade , while A.
Alexander resumed the role he had held in the previous Labour Government as First Lord of the Admiralty. At the end of the war in Europe, in May , Labour resolved not to repeat the Liberals' error of , and promptly withdrew from government, on trade union insistence, to contest the general election in opposition to Churchill's Conservatives. Although Clement Attlee was no great radical himself,  Attlee's government proved one of the most radical British governments of the 20th century, enacting Keynesian economic policies, presiding over a policy of nationalising major industries and utilities including the Bank of England , coal mining, the steel industry, electricity, gas, and inland transport including railways, road haulage and canals.
It developed and implemented the "cradle to grave" welfare state conceived by the economist William Beveridge. At a secret meeting in January , Attlee and six cabinet ministers, including Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin , decided to proceed with the development of Britain's nuclear weapons programme ,  in opposition to the pacifist and anti-nuclear stances of a large element inside the Labour Party.
Labour went on to win the general election , but with a much reduced majority of five seats. In the general election , Labour narrowly lost to Churchill's Conservatives, despite receiving the larger share of the popular vote — its highest ever vote numerically. Most of the changes introduced by the —51 Labour government were accepted by the Conservatives and became part of the " post-war consensus " that lasted until the late s. Food and clothing rationing, however, still in place since the war, were swiftly relaxed, then abandoned from about Following the defeat of the party spent 13 years in opposition.
The party suffered an ideological split, between the party's left-wing followers of Aneurin Bevan known as Bevanites , and the right-wing of the party following Hugh Gaitskell known as Gaitskellites while the postwar economic recovery and the social effects of Attlee's reforms made the public broadly content with the Conservative governments of the time. The ageing Attlee contested his final general election in , which saw Labour lose ground, and he retired shortly after.
His replacement, Hugh Gaitskell, associated with the right wing of the party, struggled in dealing with internal party divisions in the late s and early s particularly over Clause IV of the Labour Party Constitution, which was viewed as Labour's commitment to nationalisation and Gaitskell wanted scrapped  .
Under Gaitskell, Labour lost their third general election in a row in In , Gaitskell's sudden death from a rare illness made way for Harold Wilson to lead the party. A downturn in the economy and a series of scandals in the early s the most notorious being the Profumo affair had engulfed the Conservative government by The Labour Party returned to government with a 4-seat majority under Wilson in the general election but increased its majority to 96 in the general election. Wilson's government was responsible for a number of sweeping social and educational reforms under the leadership of Home Secretary Roy Jenkins such as the abolishment of the death penalty in , the legalisation of abortion and homosexuality initially only for men aged 21 or over, and only in England and Wales in and the abolition of theatre censorship in Comprehensive education was expanded and the Open University created.
However Wilson's government had inherited a large trade deficit that led to a currency crisis and ultimately a doomed attempt to stave off devaluation of the pound. Labour went on to lose the general election to the Conservatives under Edward Heath. After losing the general election, Labour returned to opposition, but retained Harold Wilson as Leader.
Heath's government soon ran into trouble over Northern Ireland and a dispute with miners in which led to the " three-day week ". The s proved a difficult time to be in government for both the Conservatives and Labour due to the oil crisis which caused high inflation and a global recession. The Labour Party was returned to power again under Wilson a few weeks after the February general election , forming a minority government with the support of the Ulster Unionists. The Conservatives were unable to form a government alone as they had fewer seats despite receiving more votes numerically.
In a bid to gain a majority, a second election was soon called for October in which Labour, still with Harold Wilson as leader, won a slim majority of three, gaining just 18 seats taking its total to For much of its time in office the Labour government struggled with serious economic problems and a precarious majority in the Commons, while the party's internal dissent over Britain's membership of the European Economic Community , which Britain had entered under Edward Heath in , led in to a national referendum on the issue in which two thirds of the public supported continued membership.
Harold Wilson's personal popularity remained reasonably high but he unexpectedly resigned as Prime Minister in citing health reasons, and was replaced by James Callaghan. The Wilson and Callaghan governments of the s tried to control inflation which reached This was fairly successful, reducing inflation to 7. Fear of advances by the nationalist parties, particularly in Scotland, led to the suppression of a report from Scottish Office economist Gavin McCrone that suggested that an independent Scotland would be "chronically in surplus".
An arrangement negotiated in with Liberal leader David Steel , known as the Lib—Lab pact , ended after one year. Deals were then forged with various small parties including the Scottish National Party SNP and the Welsh nationalist Plaid Cymru , prolonging the life of the government.
The nationalist parties, in turn, demanded devolution to their respective constituent countries in return for their supporting the government. When the Labour government duly refused to push ahead with setting up the proposed Scottish Assembly, the SNP withdrew its support for the government: this finally brought the government down as the Conservatives triggered a vote of confidence in Callaghan's government that was lost by a single vote on 28 March , necessitating a general election.
By the economy had started to show signs of recovery, with inflation falling to single digits, unemployment falling, and living standards starting to rise during the year. In the event he decided to extend his wage restraint policy for another year hoping that the economy would be in a better shape for a election. However, during the winter of —79 there were widespread strikes among lorry drivers, railway workers, car workers and local government and hospital workers in favour of higher pay-rises that caused significant disruption to everyday life. These events came to be dubbed the " Winter of Discontent ".
In the general election Labour was heavily defeated by the Conservatives now led by Margaret Thatcher. The Labour vote held up in the election, with the party receiving a similar number of votes as in However the Conservative Party achieved big increases in support in the Midlands and South of England, benefiting from both a surge in turnout and votes lost by the ailing Liberals.
After its defeat in the general election the Labour Party underwent a period of internal rivalry between the left represented by Tony Benn , and the right represented by Denis Healey. The election of Michael Foot as leader in , and the leftist policies he espoused, such as unilateral nuclear disarmament , leaving the European Economic Community and NATO , closer governmental influence in the banking system, the creation of a national minimum wage and a ban on fox hunting  led in to four former cabinet ministers from the right of the Labour Party Shirley Williams , William Rodgers , Roy Jenkins and David Owen forming the Social Democratic Party.
Benn was only narrowly defeated by Healey in a bitterly fought deputy leadership election in after the introduction of an electoral college intended to widen the voting franchise to elect the leader and their deputy. By , the National Executive Committee had concluded that the entryist Militant tendency group were in contravention of the party's constitution. The Militant newspaper's five member editorial board were expelled on 22 February The Labour Party was defeated heavily in the general election , winning only Foot resigned and was replaced as leader by Neil Kinnock , with Roy Hattersley as his deputy.
The new leadership progressively dropped unpopular policies. The miners' strike of —85 over coal mine closures, which divided the NUM as well as the Labour Party, and the Wapping dispute led to clashes with the left of the party, and negative coverage in most of the press. Tabloid vilification of the so-called loony left continued to taint the parliamentary party by association from the activities of "extra-parliamentary" militants in local government.
Labour improved its performance in , gaining 20 seats and so reducing the Conservative majority from to They were now firmly re-established as the second political party in Britain as the Alliance had once again failed to make a breakthrough with seats. Following the election, the National Executive Committee resumed disciplinary action against members of Militant, who remained in the party, leading to further expulsions of their activists and the two MPs who supported the group. During the s radically socialist members of the party were often described as the " loony left ", particularly in the print media.
In , Kinnock was challenged by Tony Benn for the party leadership. Based on the percentages, members of parliament supported Kinnock, while Benn was backed by With a clear majority, Kinnock remained leader of the Labour Party. In November following a contested leadership election, Margaret Thatcher resigned as leader of the Conservative Party and was succeeded as leader and Prime Minister by John Major.
Most opinion polls had shown Labour comfortably ahead of the Tories for more than a year before Thatcher's resignation, with the fall in Tory support blamed largely on her introduction of the unpopular poll tax , combined with the fact that the economy was sliding into recession at the time. The change of leader in the Tory government saw a turnaround in support for the Tories, who regularly topped the opinion polls throughout although Labour regained the lead more than once.
The "yo-yo" in the opinion polls continued into , though after November any Labour lead in the polls was rarely sufficient for a majority. Major resisted Kinnock's calls for a general election throughout Kinnock campaigned on the theme "It's Time for a Change", urging voters to elect a new government after more than a decade of unbroken Conservative rule.
However, the Conservatives themselves had undergone a change of leader from Thatcher to Major, and replaced the Community Charge. The general election was widely tipped to result in a hung parliament or a narrow Labour majority, but in the event the Conservatives were returned to power, though with a much reduced majority of For the first time in over 30 years there was serious doubt among the public and the media as to whether Labour could ever return to government.
Kinnock then resigned as leader and was replaced by John Smith. Once again the battle erupted between the old guard on the party's left and those identified as "modernisers". The old guard argued that trends showed they were regaining strength under Smith's strong leadership. The new Liberal Democrats seemed to pose a major threat to the Labour base. Tony Blair the Shadow Home Secretary had an entirely different vision.
Blair, the leader of the "modernising" faction Blairites , argued that the long-term trends had to be reversed, arguing that the party was too locked into a base that was shrinking, since it was based on the working-class, on trade unions, and on residents of subsidised council housing. Blairites argued that the rapidly growing middle class was largely ignored, as well as more ambitious working-class families.
It was said that they aspired to become middle-class, but accepted the Conservative argument that Labour was holding ambitious people back, with its levelling down policies. To present a fresh face and new policies to the electorate, New Labour needed more than fresh leaders; it had to jettison outdated policies, argued the modernisers. Calling on the slogan, " One Member, One Vote " Blair with some help from Smith defeated the union element and ended block voting by leaders of labour unions.
This was achieved in Black Wednesday in September damaged the Conservative government's reputation for economic competence, and by the end of that year Labour had a comfortable lead over the Tories in the opinion polls. Although the recession was declared over in April and a period of strong and sustained economic growth followed, coupled with a relatively swift fall in unemployment, the Labour lead in the opinion polls remained strong. However, Smith died from a heart attack in May Tony Blair continued to move the party further to the centre, abandoning the largely symbolic Clause Four at the mini-conference in a strategy to increase the party's appeal to " middle England ".
More than a simple re-branding, however, the project would draw upon the Third Way strategy, informed by the thoughts of the British sociologist Anthony Giddens. New Labour was first termed as an alternative branding for the Labour Party, dating from a conference slogan first used by the Labour Party in , which was later seen in a draft manifesto published by the party in , called New Labour, New Life For Britain.
It was a continuation of the trend that had begun under the leadership of Neil Kinnock. New Labour as a name has no official status, but remains in common use to distinguish modernisers from those holding to more traditional positions, normally referred to as "Old Labour". New Labour is a party of ideas and ideals but not of outdated ideology. What counts is what works.
The objectives are radical. The means will be modern. The Labour Party won the general election with a landslide majority of ; it was the largest Labour majority ever, and at the time the largest swing to a political party achieved since Over the next decade, a wide range of progressive social reforms were enacted,   with millions lifted out of poverty during Labour's time in office largely as a result of various tax and benefit reforms.
Among the early acts of Blair's government were the establishment of the national minimum wage , the devolution of power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland , major changes to the regulation of the banking system, and the re-creation of a citywide government body for London, the Greater London Authority , with its own elected- Mayor.
Combined with a Conservative opposition that had yet to organise effectively under William Hague , and the continuing popularity of Blair, Labour went on to win the election with a similar majority, dubbed the "quiet landslide" by the media. Bush in supporting the Iraq War , which caused him to lose much of his political support. In the general election , Labour was re-elected for a third term, but with a reduced majority of 66 and popular vote of only During this election, proposed controversial posters by Alastair Campbell where opposition leader Michael Howard and shadow chancellor Oliver Letwin, who are both Jewish, were depicted as flying pigs were criticised as being anti-Semitic.
In response, Campbell said that the posters were not in "any way shape or form" intended to be anti-Semitic. Blair announced in September that he would quit as leader within the year, though he had been under pressure to quit earlier than May in order to get a new leader in place before the May elections which were expected to be disastrous for Labour. Although the party experienced a brief rise in the polls after this, its popularity soon slumped to its lowest level since the days of Michael Foot.
Finance proved a major problem for the Labour Party during this period; a " cash for peerages " scandal under Blair resulted in the drying up of many major sources of donations. Declining party membership, partially due to the reduction of activists' influence upon policy-making under the reforms of Neil Kinnock and Blair, also contributed to financial problems. In the general election on 6 May that year, Labour with The Conservatives with Harriet Harman became the Leader of the Opposition and acting Leader of the Labour Party following the resignation of Gordon Brown on 11 May , pending a leadership election  subsequently won by Ed Miliband.
Miliband emphasised "responsible capitalism" and greater state intervention to change the balance of the economy away from financial services. Miliband also argued for greater regulation of banks and energy companies. Henceforth the leader of the party chose the Shadow Cabinet members. The party's performance held up in local elections in with Labour consolidating its position in the North and Midlands, while also regaining some ground in Southern England.
Results in London were mixed: Ken Livingstone lost the election for Mayor of London , but the party gained its highest ever representation in the Greater London Authority in the concurrent assembly election. On 1 March , at a special conference the party reformed internal Labour election procedures, including replacing the electoral college system for selecting new leaders with a "one member, one vote" system following the recommendation of a review by former general-secretary Ray Collins.
Mass membership would be encouraged by allowing "registered supporters" to join at a low cost, as well as full membership. Members from the trade unions would also have to explicitly "opt in" rather than "opt out" of paying a political levy to Labour. The party edged out the Conservatives in the May European parliamentary elections winning 20 seats to the Conservatives' However the UK Independence Party won 24 seats. In September , Shadow Chancellor Ed Balls outlined his plans to cut the government's current account deficit, and the party carried these plans into the general election.
Whereas Conservatives campaigned for a surplus on all government spending, including investment, by —19, Labour stated it would balance the budget , excluding investment, by The general election unexpectedly resulted in a net loss of seats, with Labour representation falling to seats in the House of Commons. After the election, Miliband resigned as party leader and Harriet Harman again became acting leader.
Tensions soon developed in the parliamentary party over Corbyn's leadership. Following the referendum on EU membership more than two dozen members of the Shadow Cabinet resigned in late June ,  and a no-confidence vote was supported by MPs against 40 supporting Corbyn. Following the party's decision to support the European Union Notification of Withdrawal Bill , at least three shadow cabinet ministers, all representing constituencies which voted to remain in the EU, resigned from their position as a result of the party's decision to invoke Article 50 under the bill.
In May Loughborough University 's Centre for Research in Communication and Culture considered a majority of media reports on Labour to be critical compared to coverage of the Conservatives. Some of the opinion polls had shown a point Conservative lead over Labour before the election was called, but this lead had narrowed by the day of the general election , which resulted in a hung parliament. Despite remaining in opposition for its third election in a row, Labour at Allegations of antisemitism in Labour have been made, particularly after comments in by Naz Shah and Ken Livingstone resulted in their suspension pending investigation.
Some party members were expelled for bringing the party into disrepute while Livingstone resigned from it in after being suspended for two years. The party made antisemitism and other forms of hate speech a disciplinary offence in , and in Jennie Formby was appointed General Secretary of the Labour Party where she began the reorganisation and expansion of Labour's disciplinary structures, leading to further and continuing expulsions, resignations and other sanctions.
In , training in antisemitism was organised for staff and members with responsibility for disciplinary processes. In February , Formby released statistics of antisemitism cases between April and January that showed 0. The Labour Party is considered to be left of centre. It only gained a "socialist" commitment with the original party constitution of That "socialist" element, the original Clause IV , was seen by its strongest advocates as a straightforward commitment to the "common ownership", or nationalisation , of the "means of production, distribution and exchange".
Although about a third of British industry was taken into public ownership after the Second World War, and remained so until the s, the right of the party were questioning the validity of expanding on this objective by the late s. Influenced by Anthony Crosland 's book, The Future of Socialism , the circle around party leader Hugh Gaitskell felt that the commitment was no longer necessary.
While an attempt to remove Clause IV from the party constitution in failed, Tony Blair , and the "modernisers" saw the issue as putting off potential voters,  and were successful thirty-five years later,  with only limited opposition from senior figures in the party. Party electoral manifestos have not contained the term socialism since The new version of Clause IV, though affirming a commitment to democratic socialism,   no longer definitely commits the party to public ownership of industry: in its place it advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" along with "high quality public services Historically, influenced by Keynesian economics , the party favoured government intervention in the economy, and the redistribution of wealth.
Taxation was seen as a means to achieve a "major redistribution of wealth and income" in the October election manifesto. From the lates onwards, the party adopted free market policies,  leading many observers to describe the Labour Party as social democratic or the Third Way , rather than democratic socialist. In more recent times, a limited number of Members of Parliament in the Socialist Campaign Group and the Labour Representation Committee have seen themselves as the standard bearers for the radical socialist tradition in contrast to the democratic socialist tradition represented by organisations such as Compass and the magazine Tribune.
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In , Momentum was created by Jon Lansman as a grass-roots left-wing organisation following Jeremy Corbyn 's election as party leader. Rather than organising among the PLP , Momentum is a rank and file grouping with an estimated 40, members. Labour has long been identified with red, a political colour traditionally affiliated with socialism and the labour movement. Prior to the red flag logo, the party had used a modified version of the classic shovel, torch, and quill emblem.
In a brand conscious Labour leadership had devised a competition, inviting supporters to design a logo to replace the 'polo mint' like motif that had previously appeared on party literature. The winning entry, emblazoned with the word "Liberty" over a design incorporating a torch, shovel and quill symbol, was popularised through its sale, in badge form, for a shilling. The party conference in passed a motion "That this conference adopts Party Colours, which should be uniform throughout the country, colours to be red and gold".
The red rose , a symbol of social democracy, was adopted as the party symbol in as part of a rebranding exercise and is now incorporated into the party logo. The red flag became an inspiration which resulted in the composition of " The Red Flag ", the official party anthem since its inception, being sung at the end of party conferences and on various occasions such as in Parliament on February to mark the centenary of the Labour Party's founding.
During New Labour attempts were made to play down the role of the song,   however it still remains in use.
The patriotic song Jerusalem , based on a William Blake poem, is also frequently sung. The Labour Party is a membership organisation consisting of individual members and constituency Labour parties , affiliated trade unions , socialist societies and the Co-operative Party , with which it has an electoral agreement. The Labour Party Conference was the first at which affiliated trade unions and Constituency Labour Parties did not have the right to submit motions on contemporary issues that would previously have been debated.
The Labour Party is an unincorporated association without a separate legal personality , and the Labour Party Rule Book legally regulates the organisation and the relationship with members. In August , prior to the leadership election , the Labour Party reported , full members, , affiliated supporters mostly from affiliated trade unions and socialist societies and , registered supporters; a total of about , members and supporters. In February , leaked membership figures revealed a decline to , In December a meeting of the members of the Labour Party in Northern Ireland decided unanimously to contest the elections for the Northern Ireland Assembly held in May The Trade Union and Labour Party Liaison Organisation is the co-ordinating structure that supports the policy and campaign activities of affiliated union members within the Labour Party at the national, regional and local level.
As it was founded by the unions to represent the interests of working-class people, Labour's link with the unions has always been a defining characteristic of the party. In recent years this link has come under increasing strain, with the RMT being expelled from the party in for allowing its branches in Scotland to affiliate to the left-wing Scottish Socialist Party.
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The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between and However, in February , the Labour Party NEC decided to downgrade participation to observer membership status, "in view of ethical concerns, and to develop international co-operation through new networks". Elections to the European Parliament began in , and were held under the first past the post system until , when a form of proportional representation was introduced.
Neil Kinnock served — born age Margaret Beckett served Interim born age Tony Blair served — born age Gordon Brown served — born age Harriet Harman served and Interim born age Ed Miliband served — born age As of September , there are four living former Labour Party deputy leaders , as seen below. Roy Hattersley served — born age Margaret Beckett served — born age John Prescott served — born age Harriet Harman served — born age From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. Labour Party. Progressive Alliance Socialist International observer.
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Democracy Marxist philosophy Socialism. Clause IV The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create for each of us the means to realise our true potential and for all of us a community in which power, wealth and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few, where the rights we enjoy reflect the duties we owe, and where we live together, freely, in a spirit of solidarity, tolerance and respect.
See also: Trade unionism in the United Kingdom. Politics portal United Kingdom portal Organised labour portal Socialism portal. Retrieved 8 October Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 3 May Ideology and Politics in Britain Today illustrated, reprint ed. Manchester University Press. Retrieved 21 March Open Council Date UK.
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Retrieved 13 May Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. People's History Museum. Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 23 July Gilbert, Britain since p Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 13 April Britain Between the Wars, — Heppell and K. BBC News. Retrieved 22 February Philip Larkin: The Poems. Palgrave Macmillan. New Makers of Modern Culture.
Biteback Publishing. Attlee's Labour Governments — The Stationery Office. New Labour, old Labour: the Wilson and Callaghan governments, — Retrieved 29 October SNP Youth. Archived from the original on 19 September Retrieved 24 December Culture wars: the media and the British left. Edinburgh University Press. The Times Archived from the original on 31 July Archived from the original PDF on 23 October Retrieved 31 May Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Retrieved 29 August Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 26 September The Daily Telegraph.
Retrieved 14 May Deutsche Welle. Tucker 14 December International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 7 December The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 28 June The Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2 July