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Hardcover with dustjacket. New book. In Indian Conquistadors, leading scholars offer the most comprehensive look to date at native participation in the conquest of Mesoamerica. By offering a more balanced account of this dramatic period, this book calls into question traditional narratives that emphasize indigenous peoples' roles as auxiliaries rather than as conquistadors in their own right.
Matthew, Michael R. Matthew is associate professor of history at Marquette University. For more information about Laura E. Matthew, visit the Author Page. Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above. Reinforces our understanding of the Spanish practice of forming alliances with native groups for the purpose of conquest.
Ranging widely over central Mexico and Oaxaca, history and anthropology, Laura Matthew deftly shows how Mexicano identity in colonial Guatemala was shaped both by the Mesoamerican past and by European colonization. This is a work of prodigious scholarship that challenges the longstanding--and problematic--dichotomies of conquerors versus conquered and pre-Hispanic versus colonial eras.
Only one Inca community, which was high up in the mountains and difficult to reach, held out against the conquistadors. In , Pizarro set up a new capital at Lima and, as governor, was responsible for bringing many settlers to Peru.
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Most settlers were involved in mining the vast amounts of silver and gold that existed in Peru. The Spanish were allowed to force the Incas to work for them for low wages. They used forced labour in the army, to build new cities and to mine silver and gold. You have already heard that conquistadors often fought among themselves.
Almagro was executed, but his son, known as Almagro the Lad, continued the war. Pizarro was murdered in his palace in Lima by followers of Almagro in This is a portrait of Atahualpa, drawn from life, by a member of Pizarro's detachment, The Aztec and Inca Empires covered very large areas and consisted of millions of people. It was only after long and bloodied battles that they gave up their capitals to the invaders. The European diseases that reduced the population of the indigenous people of the Caribbean islands also affected the Aztecs, and to a lesser degree the Incas.
The Spanish were less successful against the people who occupied other areas of Central and South America. These people attacked unexpectedly and took advantage of the fact that they outnumbered the Spanish. The biggest part of the peninsula was still ruled by Mayan communities. The Spanish encountered particularly fierce resistance from the Auracanian tribes.
After the conquest of the Inca Empire, a Spanish force moved southward to found the city of Santiago in They gained control over the fertile central region of present-day Chile. The Araucanians lived in the southern part of Chile, and resisted Spanish control until well into the nineteenth century. The Spanish built a line of forts to defend their settlements against continuous Araucanian attacks and raids. The Araucanians adapted to the European style of warfare by making spears to fight the Spanish while they were on their horses.
The Araucanians were finally defeated at the end of the s and forced to live in reservations. A slave revolt in Haiti: A distinct type of resistance in exploitation colonies was the slave revolt. The revolt, lasted from the early s until , when Haiti received its independence. There were many other slave revolts throughout the Caribbean and Brazil. Some of these revolts failed and many slaves who had participated in revolts were brutally tortured and executed.
Activity Decide as a class whether you will do this activity on your own or in groups of people. Use books in the school or community library as well as the internet. There are some links in this section that you can use. The consequences of Colonisation of European expansion on the American indigenous population and the World. The arrival of the Europeans and their conquest and colonisation of the Americas transformed this land forever.
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Its people were subjugated and with them, hundreds, thousands of years' culture and civilisation were suppressed. Many died of the new diseases the Europeans brought with them. Indigenous religions did not die out, but often had to make way for the European's new religion of Christianity.
Shortly after the colonisation, a phenomenal trade in humans began across the Atlantic Ocean, as slaves were needed to work the land and plantations in the Americas. The trans-Atlantic slave trade become one of the most significant and for many, traumatic, periods in world history. But colonial rule was not destined to last in the Americas.
By the end of the 18th century, the European settlers of American colonies began to rebel and press for independence. The American War of Independence, or American Revolution, freed the 13 eastern coast colonies from British rule, and paved the way for the establishment of one of the biggest 20th century powers, the United States of America USA. This revolution was soon followed by liberation struggles all over Latin America in the beginning of the 19th century. By about , most of the Latin American countries were free from colonial rule.
Tthe arrival of the Europeans in America meant that the numbers of the native populations diminished rapidly. For example, the first Native American group that Columbus came into contact with was the Arawaks of Haiti. At that time, about , there were Arawaks. But barely 50 years later, had their numbers drastically been reduced to Another years later, they completely died out. The reasons for the decline of the Native American population include warfare with Europeans, enslavement by the conquerors, and the diseases brought from Europe.
These diseases might not have been life-threatening in Europe, where over centuries people had built up natural immunity to diseases like chicken pox and measles. But these diseases were unknown in America, and so the Native Americans had not had chance to build up any resistance to them. Those that were fatal to even Europeans, like smallpox, proved to be especially dangerous to the Native Americans.
In some cases whole villages were wiped out by European diseases and it is believed that far more than half the Native American population died in this way. Other diseases that were brought by the Europeans include dysentery, malaria and hookworm. Not only did millions of Native Americans die. The European conquests meant the end of civilisations that were more advanced than those in Europe. Gold, silver and other treasures were taken and a most of these minerals was sent to Europe.
The Mature Phase: Four Generations of Scholarship on Colonial Mesoamerica and New Spain
Filled with religious zeal, the conquistadors often destroyed temples and other buildings and burned documents, so that a great deal of cultural and historical materials was lost. Enslavement was also common. When the Europeans began to settle in America, they needed slaves to work on their cotton, tobacco and sugar plantations. In many cases whole communities were violently enslaved, like the Arawaks encountered by Columbus. Weakened by disease, the Native Americans were unable to cope with hard manual labour. The Europeans needed alternative labour and Africans slaves proved to be the answer.
African workers were strong, worked hard, were immune to many diseases and were easily obtained. How colonization led to the practice of slavery and its impact on these societies. The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of African slaves to the Americas.
The trade began in the early 16th century. By the end of the 17th century, about 30 slaves were being shipped to the Americas each year. By the end of the 18th century, the number had increased to nearly 80 per year.
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In total, about 11 or 12 million African slaves were taken to the Americas. The Europeans bought the slaves from African traders, mostly in West Africa. The slaves were often prisoners-of-war taken in battles between indigenous African groups. The slaves were kept in forts on the African coast before being transported to America.
Memories of Conquest
The conditions in the forts and on the ships were horrendous. There was little space to move or even to go to the bathroom. In America, they were auctioned off to their future owners. These slaves often had to work for hours per day, six days per week. The conditions and treatment of the slaves were not the same everywhere in the Americas. In some areas, like Brazil, they were often treated worse than in the American South, because there were many more slaves and so they could be easily replaced if they died.
There were a number of revolts against slave masters, but they were usually crushed violently. The mural is called 'Colonial Domination'. Early in the 19th century, the slave trade was banned. This led to some improvement in the treatment of slaves to ensure that they would survive longer. Later that century slavery was banned completely. The legacy of the slave trade and slavery lasted much longer. For many African Americans, who do not know where their African ancestors came from, the slave trade means that a huge part of their background remains a mystery.
Slavery in the New World played an enormous role in the economies of America and Europe. People became very wealthy through their plantations, worked by slaves, and through trade with Africa and Europe. For more on History of Slavery and early colonisation. Another important aspect of conquest and colonisation is the religion brought by the Europeans, namely Christianity. There were several reasons why the Europeans were eager to conquer the Americas. One was South America's legendary treasures in gold and silver. The other was religious zeal. Many Spaniards claimed to have gone to the Americas to spread the gospel and convert the Native Americans.
It is debatable whether religion or greed played the most important role.
Indian Conquistadors: Indigenous Allies in the Conquest of Mesoamerica
Furthermore, when the Aztecs saw the crosses they became even more convinced that this was the return of their god, since he was the god of crossroads. When the Aztecs realised their mistake, it was too late. The Spaniards defeated them in battle, and finally had not only their land, but their gold and silver as well.