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Autism , also called classic autism or autistic disorder , developmental disorder affecting physical, social, and language skills, with an onset of signs and symptoms typically before age three. The use of the word autism to describe the condition as it is known today originated in , when Austrian-born American psychiatrist Leo Kanner distinguished the disorder from schizophrenia. Classic autism, Asperger syndrome , and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified PDD-NOS are all included within an umbrella of disorders commonly referred to as autism spectrum disorders ASDs.
In contrast to classic autism, individuals with Asperger syndrome usually do not possess major cognitive difficulties, and their IQ is in the normal or even high range. In addition, they do not exhibit a delay in language acquisition. The U.
Childhood Autism Rating Scale
In the United Kingdom a school-based population study published in estimated prevalence at about 1 in every children. In both countries, males are affected four to five times more often than females. While best estimates have been determined, the incidence of autism varies significantly between and within countries, which is partly due to differences in resources and the clinical definitions used for diagnosis.
For example, in one region of the United Kingdom, roughly 1 in every individuals was found to be affected by an ASD.
However, in the same region of the country, classic autism was found to range in incidence between 1 in and 1 in individuals. In addition, there appears to have been a dramatic increase in the global incidence of autism between the mids and the early s. However, it is not known whether there has been a true increase in the incidence of the disorder, since the increase could be due to the use of broader diagnostic criteria or other factors.
In changes in NHIS questions about ASD, including rewording and expansion for greater detail, were associated with a subsequent increase in parent-reported diagnoses of ASDs in children. The cause of autism remains unclear. However, it appears that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the disorder.
A study published in that assessed pairs of twins in which at least one twin was affected by an ASD suggested that, while genetic factors contribute moderately to susceptibility, environmental factors contribute to a greater degree. Other research has indicated that genetic vulnerability to autism differs between males and females, with more mutations being needed to produce the condition in females compared with males.
Library Resources - Autism Spectrum Disorders - Taylor Library at Fontbonne University
Increased genetic resiliency to autism in females lends support to the so-called female protective model, which attempts to explain the increased prevalence of autism in males. Lezersrecensies Beoordeel zelf slecht matig voldoende goed zeer goed. Algemene beoordeling slecht matig voldoende goed zeer goed. Uw recensie.
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Anderen bekeken ook. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. Encyclopedia of Adolescence 2. Nadel Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science 2.
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Humana Press Inc. Organism Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders , Bekijk de hele lijst.