This positive externality would reduce training costs, favour pensions sustainability and reduce the waste of knowledge. Table 3. Strategies of gradual retirement. The Japanese model, which is a combination of pension schemes for workers over 60, monetary incentives and new jobs. Various projects have been carried out at the European or national level to investigate the needs and challenges of an ageing society . Strategies to encourage intergenerational solidarity and the exchange of competences between young and elderly people have exploited a variety of tools: enabling interactions among groups to share experience and recognize tacit knowledge  , learning platforms  , coaching  , tutoring and mentoring models  , new communication channels and partnerships .
Usually, young people teach the use of ICT and elderly people teach handicraft activities, tacit knowledge or organizational competences. In the Bavarian area this kind of transfer is very common: many pensioners, often under their own initiative, provide orientation and transfer their own working experience to young people approaching the labour market . Other projects, co-financed by the EU and investigating one or more of the above-mentioned areas of interest employment, services and intergenerational solidarity are presented in Table 4 , which also includes references to the projects.
Table 4 — Good practices coming from European projects. Title of the project and partnership. Description of the project. This research project covered all EU member states at that time plus the US and Japan and provided recommendations on the demand and supply side, presenting older population segmentation as regards IST needs, interests and access and a deep SWOT analysis. The project also provided recommendations by actors industry, policy maker, ageing organizations and care providers in order to improve skills of elderly people to exploit IST, to overcome the digital divide and to facilitate the use of these products and services , taking into account that a wider usage of information technology mediated services improves wellbeing and facilitates independent living for elderly people.
This project collected useful long lasting practices at company level in more than 10 EU countries . This research project presents useful new work models age awareness workshops for managers, training the trainer, experience sharing and intergenerational teams and makes recommendations for effective policies. Adecco Institute carried out research on 2, companies in five European countries. The research led to the creation of a demographic fitness index to identify how ready they are to face ageing in terms of career management, intergenerational diversity, lifelong learning, health and knowledge management.
This research measured an average index of only among a range ; reporting a lack of interest in ageing analysis of the workforce and the finding of solutions for the short run, not the long term . The project presented different situations across the European Union. In Scandinavian countries, especially Finland , ageing is a recognized concept, whereas some New Member States suffer a lower life expectancy . This points to a need to understand more about the positive contribution that ICT can make in this area.
ECOM45 case studies. The state of the national economy of each country is directly affected by global economic indicators. The financial and economic crisis which has spread round the world in recent months, has adverse ly affect ed the conditions of rising standards of living in Bulgaria.
Objectives of the [email protected] project
Throughout the labour market in Bulgaria was faced with numerous challenges. The growing uncertainty of the economic environment created cautiousness in both employers and employees. Unemployment has been steadily increasing and according to the Bulgarian Employment Agency, it has soared up to GDP is reported to have dropped by 4. The lack of financial resources, the uncertain economic environment and low demand have led to serious difficulties among entrepreneurs, hence reduced income and employment opportunities. According to the N ational S tatistical I nstitute, at the end of November the factor of u nemployment in Bulgaria was 8.
Their number is about , or This category of unemployed increase s by 8, people 9. The majority of them are people with no qualification nor speciality The number of long - term unemployed people is 39 , monthly average. B oth groups have relatively broad professional experience , social experience and experience in learning.
The state has taken measures to overcome the effects of the global crisis and revive the national economy. The following changes have been envisaged: reduc tion of the social insurance and tax burden, retention of tax levels , figh against illegal business and other. A number of laws, regulations and decrees have been enforced to regulate unemployment and promot e employment : L aw on encouragement of employment , the Employment Strategy, National Action Plan on Employment and others. M any European and national programs have started and are implemented throughout the country.
They aim a t chang ing or furthering qualification s of the employed and unemployed, improving the access to education and training, increas ing the labor supply and quality of workforce , reduc ing the mass layoffs and leav e of employees who, for economic reasons , are not paid full monthly salary. The programs are aimed at different target groups formed on bas is of age and social or professional status, education level and type of training and other s. One goal of these programs is related to the professional realization of people over They are to be given the option to acquire, change their qualifications or to increase them in accordance with the current requirements of the labor market, which will help to extend their work activity and create conditions for their continued employment.
Unemployed people of pre-retirement age are one of the priority groups for active policy. Despite all measures taken by the government in terms of reducing the unemployment among elderly people, the analysis show that employers are still reluctant to hire people from this age group. A survey was conducted to determine public opinion of training and employment of elderly people.
The results of the survey could be summarized as follows: People over 45 have longer life experience and established work habits - factors that in some cases could even be a priority in selecting staff. One of the main area of training and retraining of elderly people is ICT. New technologies are now an integral part of almost all professions , so acquiring such skills is particularly important.
Internet jobs of new generation will be increasingly demanded in recent years. Here is an example of how ICT can benefit the employment of people over 45 years - now in Bulgaria call centers are one of the few companies that continue to recruit new employees during the crisis. In the field of outsourcing services at least thousand people can work in the country. C all centers are staffed by people of different ages, education and nationality. Call centres perform part of the activities of a company, usually related to serving its end users.
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Who are the Seniors? Population aging factors:. Some statistics:. Barriers in front of elderly people seeking employment :. Social isolation and self-isolation:. Labour market participation:. Barriers for employers to hire elderly people :. Team work. Assistance needed. Financial or other costs. Potential areas of employment :. Types of skills required:. Legal framework and initiatives :. Tendencies in the process of educating elderly people:.
Adult education in Bulgaria focuses on:. Adult education in Bulgaria is a polycentric system which includes structures of formal and informal education:. Basic conclusions :. Recent development of Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union has often given relatively more opportunities to younger people. Fast changes during this interim-period have increased the negative attitude towards the older generation as some of them have not always been able to adopt to significant changes in the society.
At the beginning of this interim-period the number of working Estonians decreased quite abruptly and because of the changes in the economy the employment of older people decreased the most. The rate of employment. The rate of employment differs greatly between different age groups. There are more workers among the people who have higher education level. There are no differences regarding nationality but the rate of employment is higher within native Estonians.
One of the most important reasons for this is probably their better skill of Estonian language while compared to other people non-Estonians evaluate their knowledge of the national language lower. The older people are also more involved with the 1st policy makers, high clerks and company leaders and 2nd high specialists level occupations. At the same time there are more manual labourers among them as well.
We also have quite many older people working as teachers, doctors, nurses and socialworkers in the healt care-, education- and social systems. Is this good or bad? We can often hear people saying that there are too many old people working as teachers and doctors. Aging doctor, teacher, socialworker is not a bad thing. A specialist who is continiously improving himself and loves his speciality is very valuable because of their knowledge and experience gained through life, which also balances the inexperience of their young colleagues and ensures the continuity.
There are many jobs where the empoyers see older people as better candidates since they are more dependable and experienced. The position differs greatly considering sex and nationality. Among Estonians there are more high level specialists, whereas among the other nationalities there are more skilled workers and manual labourers. Women are more likely to work as top specialists, service- and salespersons, clerks and manual labourers. Men are often working as managers, skilled workers and machine operators.
Primary field. Secondary field. Third field. Source: Angela Poolakese - The study of wellfare of the elderly In this table there are considered people from ages Estonia is one of the leading countries when we are talking about the rate of employment of the elderly. At the same time it might not be enough to ensure the sustainability of the society since our population is aging fairly fast.
At the moment there are 2 retirees per 3 workers and it is predicted that after 40 years there will be only 1 worker per 1 retired person. In terms of aging population, where the rate of the dependants is growing, it is essential to support the continuity of elderly employment. In the Study of Welfare of the Elderly the author tried to find out how well do the older people adapt to using modern tools in their everyday lives.
Internet bank. E-income statement. The use of computers for communication MSN, Skype. The use of e-signature. First level. Second level. Third level. Working retiree. What should we do in Estonia to enhance the working opportunities for the older generation?
According to the evaluation of the Centre for European Policy Studies the labour market structure is not the main problem when it comes to accomplishing a higher employment rate and a raise of productivity. Therefore the countries should invest in education and retraining. Since most of the information is located on the Internet, the knowledge and use of e-working would surely enhance the opportunities to be actively involved in different working fields.
How can one conciliate ageing, employment and decent income? Quite graphic, the first part of the presentation is based upon the display of four charts. With less than 1. No less dramatic is the third chart on which EU public pension spending as a percentage of the gross domestic product has been plotted, forming a simple yet quickly ascending curve, quasi linearly ranging from about Focussing on the bad French unemployment figures, the fourth graphical slide gives a visual idea of unemployment over the period of time from April to November Reacting 8th slide.
What about employers? In France the answer is not in government measures, it lies in the capacity of changing mentalities at all levels: employers, employees and within the general population, even going as far as presenting to young children elementary school a different view on the elderly and ageing. Opportunities open for adults above the age of Net-Mex Ltd.
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The most important demographic process in Hungary — and also in the other developed countries — might be characterized by the aging of population. This phenomenon is unprecedented in human history, and poses great challenges to society. Population aging is a natural process reflecting a general development of humans.
On the other hand it creates a special requirement for improving possibilities provided for elderly in education and in ICT-skills development in order to enable them to achieve active longevity and well-being through the facilities and within the circumstances of the 21 st century. Demographic trends as predictors of difficulties and opportunities. The age structure has been changing in Hungary similarly to other countries in Europe between The size of the elderly population is continuously growing, there is a rise thus in the average age of the population, as the proportion of children is continuously decreasing, while the old age dependency ratio is continuously increasing.
Age group years. Population size in Under Average age of population. Old age dependency ratio. Total dependency ratio. Age structure changes in Hungary , Table 2. The natural decrease in the population since the s is due to the decreasing proportion of live births and deaths. Figure 1. The death rates have slightly been increasing since the s as an average which is due to the greater number of capita thanks to the natural population increase.
This process will even accelerate when the large generations borne in the s and s enter the elderly age-group. At present the number of children is equal to the number of elderly in Hungary , but by at least 80 percent more elderly will be than children, according to the projections. The outcome of these demographic changes is the shrinking of the labour force: the number of those in working ages is expectedly falls to 4 million, the level back before World War I.
Then, the destruction of industrial employment changed the strategies of young people and their families, who thereafter opted to continue their education beyond compulsory schooling. Today this would be inconceivable, since the situation reflected a backward country with an abundance of unskilled jobs.
Since the crisis of the mid 70s, the youth employment rate ie, the relationship between the number of employed and the total population of this age group has continually decreased while the number of students has increased. This positive modernisation process contributes to a more productive economy where unskilled jobs are increasingly scarce.
In fact, as Luis Garrido demonstrates, the percentage of young people neither studying nor working is lower in this crisis than in the previous one of These include the recent European Commission initiative to support youth employment for unders.
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And yet in reality the unemployment situation is more worrying for older groups of year olds. That is when young people have finished their training and embark on a period of great difficulties to start their own families.
As the share of the population at older age increases, concerns abound over how to cope with accompanying expectations of greater health and long-term care needs, as well as implications for economic output, such as having a comparatively smaller share of younger people at traditional working age. The consensus among many is that these demographic changes portend inevitable consequences, including for economic growth, public finances and households.
Yet taking a more balanced view, it becomes evident that a growing older population is not necessarily so costly to care for, and that older people often provide significant economic and societal benefits —especially if they are healthy and active. Highlighting the links between the health and activity of older people, their economic and societal costs and contributions, and the role of policy intervention, we review the latest research and policy initiatives to gain a more evidence-based look at the economics of population ageing.
This brief article provides an introduction to some of the key findings. The notion that it is costly to provide health and long-term care to older people is pervasive. A common view is that health and long-term care spending increases with calendar age, and so as older people comprise a larger share of the population, expenditures will increase commensurately and unsustainably.
However, there are important differences across countries in the extent to which health care spending in fact increases with age. Yet even despite this typical pattern of higher health care spending for older people, shifting demographics alone are expected to add no more than one additional percentage point to average annual per person health care expenditure growth rates over to in a selection of European countries.
Population ageing is simply too gradual a process to rapidly accelerate health care expenditure growth. To put the magnitude of the effect of population ageing in perspective, among OECD countries, nominal per person annual health care expenditure growth was 5.
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Health care spending patterns by age are likely driven by a number of factors at system level, including coverage levels, accessibility, incentives for provision, and payment mechanisms, among others. Additionally, much of the evidence suggests that calendar age itself is in fact not the primary reason for the observed increases in spending associated with age. Rather, researchers have identified related factors such as proximity to death and poor health status as more important determinants of health spending.
And although health care spending increases rapidly in the final months of life, there is also research showing that beginning at a certain age, the older people are when they die, the cheaper is their death. For example, research from Canada finds that the health care costs of dying are lower for those over age 80. It follows therefore that where longevity increases, it is possible that the health care costs of older people relative to younger people will actually fall, reducing the anticipated effects of population ageing on total health care expenditure growth.
Of course, proximity to death itself may also serve to some extent as a proxy for high levels of morbidity or disability. Although it is of primary interest to policymakers to understand how population health is evolving, there remains considerable uncertainty over whether there has been a compression of morbidity i. There are likely different trends by health condition, making it impossible to draw definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, whether people are living longer in better or worse health is likely to have a notable impact on health care expenditures in the future.
While health care spending is not materially driven by population ageing, demand for long-term care is expected to increase substantially as a result of population ageing given that it is highly linked to age, with around half of users over 80 years of age in most countries; these increases are viewed by many to pose significant challenges from a sustainability perspective. It is important to note that long-term care expenditure data is notoriously unreliable due to differences across countries in definitions, the types of care available, how care is financed, and which Ministry is responsible for which services.
One particular issue is that the reported long-term care expenditures only represent formal long-term care; to fully understand the economic costs of providing long-term care, one must also account for the costs of providing informal long-term care, particularly in countries where this comprises the majority of activity to more accurately assess the sustainability of long-term care systems. These household costs of informal caregiving include missed employment opportunities particularly when caring for those with the most intensive needs , the labour associated with caregiving itself, and emotional, physical and social well-being costs[11,12].
When accounted for properly and in full, the costs of providing long-term care may be more alarming. For example, although the support ratio is typically expressed by comparing the size of the population above a fixed-age threshold relative to the size of the population below, the fixed-age threshold is meaningless in the context of understanding who is and is not dependent. Often age 65 is used to loosely reflect retirement age, while in fact there is considerable variability in terms of normal retirement ages i. Women in South Korea work Data from to suggest that across OECD countries, people have been leaving the formal labour force at progressively earlier ages over time, with a slight reversal to that trend in recent years.
In reality, whatever age threshold is chosen for the support ratio, will still mask the fact that many older people remain in the workforce, particularly in low-income countries, and many people above the age threshold who are not in the workforce are economically independent. Alternative approaches to the support ratio attempt to more properly account for changes in population health and disability, and for changes in the number of consumers and producers in the population[14,15].
Additionally, while consumption expenditures do increase at older ages in many countries, consumption of older people itself is paid for in a variety of ways, including through continued work, assets e. In Europe, data from the National Transfer Accounts indicate that the majority of consumption among those over age 65 is funded by public transfers funded in part by taxes generated from labour income, however a non-negligible share of consumption in many countries is self-funded, for example through savings and assets, further highlighting the self-sufficiency of many older people.
Although much of the focus related to older people is with reference to the costs of caring for and supporting them, there are also concerns that population ageing will contribute on its own to economic slowdown as the share of the retired population increases. However there is great scope for older people to contribute meaningfully to society and the economy in a number of ways, particularly if they are healthy and able to remain active.
First, while many people leave the paid labour force around their 60s, others still do remain in paid work, either by choice or because pressures on pension systems have led to increases in pension ages.
Factors associated with work ability in the elderly: systematic review
Those who do remain in paid work may be viewed as less productive than their younger counterparts, however evidence suggests that worker productivity naturally varies over the life course for reasons like accumulation of experience over time, changes in skill needs of the workforce, and changes in mental and physical capabilities.
For some occupations, such as those requiring intensive manual labour, it is unsurprising that older people would be likely to experience declines in output, whereas jobs requiring less physical exertion may benefit from additional years of experience where skills continuously improve with age. There are of course important questions with regards to the health implications of delaying retirement until older ages. Some studies find that retirement is beneficial for subjective health measures, such as mental health, though there is only limited evidence of effects on physical health[19,20].
Early retirement is often associated with declines in cognitive function, suggesting that supporting retirement at older ages, among those who are able and willing to continue to work, may promote cognitive function later in life. However disentangling causal effects of retirement remain challenging. Second, there are many unpaid older workers as well as paid workers who also take part in some additional unpaid work producing outputs that can be seen as having economic or social value.
To understand how productivity as well as the sustainability of the welfare state is affected by demographic change, it is important to take stock of these non-market-based outputs. One of the most relevant forms of unpaid work is informal caregiving. We find using data from the European Social Survey that including informal carers adjusted for full-time equivalency would have a substantial effect on employment rates of older people Figure 1.
Figure 1. Third, ageing populations can also indirectly lead to economy-wide productivity growth in the future as their savings and assets translate into increased capital investment. This, particularly in the presence of slower labour force growth and lower fertility, would lead to increased capital per worker and greater productivity.
Researchers find that health, among other factors, is a key predictor of asset accumulation: people who are in poor health accumulate fewer assets during their life course because they have shorter life expectancies, lower earnings, and higher out-of-pocket health care costs. Lastly, while older people may contribute less towards the public sector than working-age people on average, older people may finance a considerable portion of the consumption of others through taxation.
Older people who are not in paid work continue to play a role in public revenue generation through consumption taxes e. VAT or sales tax as well as though taxes on non-labour income and assets e. Tax revenues generated from purely non-income sources i. How can policymakers minimize unwarranted costs and maximize benefits of older people? The health care and long-term care costs of older people, as well as the ability of older people to contribute meaningfully to society and the economy are dependent on a number of factors.
Undoubtedly, health and functional ability are of utmost importance. Healthy older people require less intensive and expensive care, they are able to engage in paid or unpaid work if they choose to do so, and they even accumulate greater asset wealth than comparable unhealthy people. Likewise, policies and strategies that control care costs and promote the ability of older people to contribute can be effective to ensure population ageing does not lead to undue economic pressures. Interventions to support health and activity at older ages include those that delay the onset and progression of disease, as well as those which prevent or delay care dependency[27,28].
Policies which reduce smoking and harmful alcohol consumption have been shown to be particularly effective at improving health. These behavioural changes can have important health effects even if they do not occur until older ages. For example, there is good evidence that those who quit smoking at age 65 live longer than those who continue to smoke.
Strategies to prevent or delay the progression of dependency may help keep costs under control and allow older people to remain active in society. A key focus to prevent dependency should be on preventing cognitive decline, where there is some evidence that taking a multidomain approach can improve or maintain cognitive function. Other interventions to prevent or reduce frailty, such as resistance training or promoting physical activity at older ages, have also been shown to be effective[32,33].
There has also been widespread interest in new models of care delivery to help control health and long-term care costs, particularly given the complex care needs of older populations.